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of Power System Analysis 4th Ed. by William D. Stevenson, Jr Download 40 . Sistemas de potencia stevenson pdf electricos de potencia. Analisis De Sistemas Electricos De Potencia book. Read reviews William D. Stevenson. Other editions Be the first to ask a question about Analisis De Sistemas Electricos De Potencia Download app for iOS Download app for Android. William D. Stevenson is the author of Elements of Power System Analysis ( William D. Stevenson's books Analisis De Sistemas Electricos De Potencia.
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Create Ecomap examples like this template called Ecomap that you can easily edit and customize in minutes. The aim of this research was to learn of the incidence of corrosion upon electric power losses to study its behavior in saline environments.
Thus, ACSR is the conductor studied herein given that it is the one currently used , through a test bench that simulates an electric network exposed to a normal environment and to a saline environment to obtain results that help to delve into studying the phenomenon described and contributing in the search for solutions to problems caused by electric power losses.
Methods The tests were conducted in two stages: The first consisted in subjecting the three ACSR conductors composed by aluminum wires H 19 , with steel core covered by galvanized zinc, gauges No. Thereafter, the electric power consumption was measured at the source input and on the installed load, requiring a test bench - as security against electrical risk - for electrical connections where protection and measurement equipment are installed.
Afterward, electric measurement instruments were implemented to check on the behavior of currents, voltage, and energy consumption.
It should be mentioned that the first stage is provided as control and reference test to compare the variables presented after the application of accelerated corrosion of the cables. The second phase replicated the previous procedure, adding the saline fog chamber SFC intervention to which a saline solution was poured composed of five parts of sodium chloride NaCl and 95 parts of type IV demineralized water and prepared according to ASTM B standard chapter 8 - saline solution , under CIC supervision.
The samples bare ACSR cable were connected to each other, according to gauges via aluminum-aluminum connector and their loads with bimetallic connectors to permit closing the circuit and accomplishing the reading of parameters like amperage, voltage, and energy. Also, considering the material with which the conductors are composed, it is pertinent to state that it is common for aluminum to present localized pit type and galvanic corrosion due to contact between aluminum and galvanized steel.
The marine-type atmospheric conditions reproduced by the SFC is charged with corrosive contaminating agents, like sodium chloride NaCl ; however, due to the SFC characteristics, it was not possible to replicate dust as another one of the contaminants that are part of a marine atmosphere.
Elements of Power System Analysis 4th Ed. by William D. Stevenson, Jr
The spray pressure of the saline solution in mist form was of 12 psi. Analysis of the corrosion tests process Exposure of the cables in the saline fog chamber began on 26 March at a. The samples were exposed for a total of During the These two hours of drying were carried out to diminish the permanence of the humidity film on the metallic surface and, thus, increase the rate of corrosion.
Figures 2 and 3 show, on the metallic surface of the samples, the layers of contaminants; in this case, NaCl residues and the presence of corrosion. Upon terminating the exposure period, the specimen was dismounted from each of the gauges exposed and then, through scaling the corrosion products were eliminated.
The area of the 4 ACSR was The mean rate of corrosion was 0.
The gauge 2 ACSR showed an area of The rate of corrosion was 0. Small pits on the aluminum and degradation of the zinc film on the steel were observed via BX46 optical microscope Figs. Analysis of the energizing test process Within the use of the correlation, the criteria shown in Table 1 were selected to determine if the test was satisfactory. This was done to verify a linear association between two variables. The relationship of voltage with respect to current during the tests conducted with load could be observed; by correlating these two factors, an average correlation of 0.
When comparing between input and output voltage for each phase, the results presented in Fig. According to Table 7, an excellent degree of agreement exists among the voltages registered for each of the three phases, which ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0. It is important to indicate that for day 02 April, the measurements evidenced a registry of the three phases, which were close to coinciding: Va 0. This event may be explained because: for the date the measurement was registered no voltage fluctuation was noted; also, the loads applied to the three phases were basically resistive elements.
Consequently, no difference was observed between input and output voltage, which guaranteed the stability of the test in question on voltage registry and control. Similarly, it was established that the only variable in the system is associated to electric power consumption and the variables inherent to the behavior of the electric elements.
Likewise, the input and output currents were measured and compared Fig. Until now, the tests agree with the expectations, but the input voltage is not equal to the output voltage, as with the current. Even so, a variable can explain what occurs in the system, the input voltage, and the output voltage.
For this purpose, we take the actual voltage value recorded for the three phases at the input and output; the input voltage corresponds to the voltage provided by the grid, and the output voltage is that delivered to the load Fig. To assess the evolution of conductors within the system, voltage, current, and power values are taken during several days of the test around one hour of continuous charge. This difference of the power value presented in a power average for each day, as well as a standard deviation of the results, is shown in Fig.
Conclusions The samples, after having been subjected to corrosion during the This could be attributed to the alumina layer generated when aluminum comes in contact with an oxidizing medium, like oxygen and water.
It is worth mentioning that galvanized steel, which is part of the ACSR, did show important surface deterioration because the zinc layer used as corrosion protector was affected. Without this zinc layer and with more hours of exposure to the saline fog, it is likely that due to the effect of the galvanic couple between the aluminum and the steel, the steel corrodes at a higher rate.
The input and output voltage, as well as the input and output current, had excellent correlation; this means that although the values were not equal, their deviations were not sufficiently significant to alter the tests.Corrosion, a natural phenomenon and the main cause of metal deterioration  , occurs due to chemical or electrochemical reactions between an electrolytic environment and the material exposed to this environment or the electrical contact between two metal, one more noble than the other.
Without this zinc layer and with more hours of exposure to the saline fog, it is likely that due to the effect of the galvanic couple between the aluminum and the steel, the steel corrodes at a higher rate.
Create Ecomap examples like this template called Ecomap that you can easily edit and customize in minutes. The input and output voltage, as well as the input and output current, had excellent correlation; this means that although the values were not equal, their deviations were not sufficiently significant to alter the tests.
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