promulgate this Constitution. ARTICLE I. NATIONAL TERRITORY. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters. do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. ARTICLE I. NATIONAL TERRITORY. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands. CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. PREAMBLE. We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence.
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CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC A vessel of Philippine registry is considered, for this purpose, as part of Philippine territory. LawJuan: Constitution is your fundamental tool to access the most fundamental law of the Philippines, the Constitution. NO network or internet connection is. The Framing Of The Philippine Constitution Jose M. Aruego.
Unless otherwise provided by law, the Chairman and each Commissioner of a Constitutional Commission shall receive an annual salary of sixty thousand pesos, and fifty thousand pesos, respectively, which shall not be decreased during their continuance in office. No Member of the Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure in office, engage in the practice of any profession or in the management of any business, or be financially interested directly or indirectly in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by, the government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, thereof, including government- owned or controlled corporations.
The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with the Civil Service Law. The Civil Service Commission Section 1.
The Civil Service embraces every branch, agency, subdivision, and instrumentality of the government, including every government- owned or controlled corporation. It shall be administered by an independent Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, are at least thirty-five years of age and holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the election immediately preceding their appointment.
The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Prime Minister for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, one shall hold office for seven years, another for five years, and the third for three years. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
The Commissioner shall, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law, established a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, and integrity in the Civil Service. Appointments in the Civil Service, except as to those which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical in nature, shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examination.
No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be suspended or dismissed except for cause provided by law. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment to any office or position during his term of office. No candidate who lost an election shall be eligible for appointment or reappointment to any office in the government, or in any government-owned or controlled corporation, within one year following such election.
No officer or employee in the Civil Service, including members of the armed forces, shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity or take part in any election, except to vote. The National Assembly shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees, including those in government-owned and controlled corporations, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for, the positions concerned.
The Commission on Elections Section 1. There shall be an independent Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and eight Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age and holders of college degree.
However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. Of the Commissioners first appointed, three shall hold office for seven years, three for five years, and the last three for three years.
Appointments to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor. The Commission on Elections shall have the following powers and functions: Enforce and administer all laws relative to the conduct of elections. Be the sole judge of all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all Members of the National Assembly and elective provincial and city officials.
Decide, save those involving the right to vote, administrative questions affecting elections, including the determination of the number and location of polling places, the appointment of election officials and inspectors, and the registration of voters. Deputize, with the consent or at the instance of the Prime Minister, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, and honest elections.
Register and accredit political parties subject to the provisions of Section Eight hereof. Recommend to the National Assembly effective measures to minimize election expenses and prohibit all forms of election frauds and malpractices, political opportunism, guest or nuisance candidacy, or other similar acts. Submit to the President, Prime Minister, and the National Assembly a report on the conduct and manner of each election.
Perform such other functions as may be provided by law. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in three divisions. All election cases may be heard and decided by divisions, except contests involving Members of the National Assembly, which shall be heard and decided en banc.
Unless otherwise provided by law, all election cases shall be decided within ninety days from the date of their submission for decision. The Commission may recommend to the Prime Minister the removal of, or any other disciplinary action against, any officer or employee it has deputized, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its decision, order, or directive.
The enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of communication, all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, may be supervised or regulated by the Commission during the election period for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, and honest elections.
Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter. No pardon, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of the law or rules and regulations concerning elections be granted without the recommendation of the Commission.
A political party shall be entitled to accreditation by the Commission if, in the immediately preceding election, such party has obtained at least the third highest number of votes cast in the constituency to which it seeks accreditation. No religious sect shall be registered as a political party and no political party which seeks to achieve its goals through violence or subversion shall be entitled to accreditation.
Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination. No party or candidate shall have membership in the registration board, board of election inspectors, board of canvassers, or other similar bodies.
No elective public officer may change his political party affiliation during his term of office and no candidate for any elective public office may change his political party affiliation within six months immediately preceding or following an election. Any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from his receipt of a copy thereof. Commission on Audit Section 1.
There shall be an independent Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least forty years of age and certified public accountants or members of the Philippine Bar for at least ten years.
The Commission on Audit shall have the following powers and functions: Examine, audit, and settle, in accordance with law and regulations, all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations; keep the general accounts of the government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers pertaining thereto; and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations including those for the prevention of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, or extravagant expenditures or use of funds and property.
Decide any case brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for resolution. Unless otherwise provided by law, any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within days from his receipt of a copy thereof.
Submit to the President, the Prime Minister, and the National Assembly, within the time fixed by law, an annual financial report of the government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations, and recommend measures necessary to improve their efficiency and effectiveness.
It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law. Perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees shall serve with the highest degree of responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency, and shall remain accountable to the people. The President, the Justices of the Supreme Court, and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, other high crimes, or graft and corruption.
The National Assembly shall have the exclusive power to initiate, try, decide all cases of impeachment. Upon the filing of a verified complaint, the National Assembly may initiate impeachment by a vote of at least one-fifth of all its Members. No official shall be convicted without the concurrence of at least two-thirds of all the members thereof. When the National Assembly sits in impeachment cases, its Members shall be on oath or affirmation.
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall be limited to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under the Republic of the Philippines, but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution, trial, and punishment, in accordance with law. The National Assembly shall create a special court, to be known as Sandiganbayan, which shall have jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and such other offenses committed by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, in relation to their office as may be determined by law.
The National Assembly shall create an office of the Ombudsman, to be known as Tanodbayan, which shall receive and investigate complaints relative to public office, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, make appropriate recommendations, and in case of failure of justice as defined by law, file and prosecute the corresponding criminal, civil, or administrative case before the proper court or body.
The National Assembly shall establish a National Economic and Development Authority, to be headed by the Prime Minister, which shall recommend to the National Assembly, after consultation with the private sector, local government units, and other appropriate public agencies, continuing, coordinated, and fully integrated social and economic plans and programs. The State shall regulate or prohibit private monopolies when the public interest so requires.
No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. The National Assembly shall, upon recommendation of the National Economic and Development Authority, reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations wholly owned by such citizens, certain traditional areas of investments when the national interest so dictates.
The National Assembly shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations, unless such corporations are owned or controlled by the government or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens, nor shall such franchise, certificate, or authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period then fifty years.
Commentary: Sustained advocacy produces success in the Philippines
Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the National Assembly when the public interest so requires. The State shall encourage equity participation in public utilities by the general public. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate share in the capital thereof.
The State may, in the interest of the national welfare or defense, establish and operate industries and means of transportation and communication, and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the government.
In times of national emergency when the public interest so requires, the State may temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest. All lands of public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, wildlife, and other natural resources of the Philippines belong to the State.
With the exception of agricultural, industrial or commercial, residential, or resettlement lands of the public domain, natural resources shall not be alienated, and no license, concession, or lease for the exploration, or utilization of any of the natural resources shall be granted for a period exceeding twenty-five years, except as to water rights for irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than development of water power, in which cases, beneficial use may by the measure and the limit of the grant.
The disposition, exploration, development, exploitation, or utilization of any of the natural resources of the Philippines shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital which is owned by such citizens.
The National Assembly, in the national interest, may allow such citizens, corporations or associations to enter into service contracts for financial, technical, management, or other forms of assistance with any foreign person or entity for the exploration, or utilization of any of the natural resources.
Existing valid and binding service contracts for financial, technical, management, or other forms of assistance are hereby recognized as such. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, industrial, or commercial, residential, resettlement, mineral, timber or forest, and grazing lands, and such other classes as may be provided by law.
The National Assembly taking into account conservation, ecological, and developmental requirements of the natural resources shall determine by law the size of lands of the public domain which may be developed, held or acquired by, or leased to, any qualified individual, corporation or association, and the conditions therefor. No private corporation or association may hold alienable lands of the public domain except by lease not to exceed one thousand hectares in area; nor may any citizen hold such lands by lease in excess of five hundred hectares or acquire by download or homestead in excess of twenty-four hectares.
No private corporation or association may hold by lease, concession, license, or permit timber or forest lands and other timber or forest resources in excess of one hundred thousand hectares; however, such area may be increased by the National Assembly upon recommendation of the National Economic and Development Authority. The State shall formulate and implement an agrarian reform program aimed at emancipating the tenant from the bondage of the soil and achieving the goals enunciated in this Constitution.
The National Assembly may authorize, upon payment of just compensation, the expropriation of public lands to be subdivided into small lots and conveyed at cost to deserving citizens. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private land shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain.
Any provision of paragraph one, Section 14, Article VIII and of this Article notwithstanding, the Prime Minister may enter into international treaties or agreement as the national welfare and interest may require. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law.
The Interim National Assembly may by law adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, and a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of ideas, history, and traditions of the people.
Thereafter the national name, anthem, and seal so adopted shall not be subject to change except by constitutional amendment. This Constitution shall be officially promulgated in English and in Pilipino, and translated into each dialect spoken by over fifty thousand people, and into Spanish and Arabic.
In case of conflict, the English text shall prevail. The National Assembly shall take steps towards the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino. Until otherwise provided by law, English and Pilipino shall be the official languages.
All public officers and employees and members of the armed forces shall take an oath to support and defend the Constitution. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional or double compensation unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept, without the consent of the National Assembly, any present, emolument, office or title of any kind from any foreign state.
No salary or any form of emolument of any public officer or employee, including constitutional officers, shall be exempt from payment of income tax. The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations wholly owned and managed by such citizens.
The governing body of every entity engaged in commercial telecommunications shall i all cases be controlled by citizens of the Philippines. All educational institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to regulation by the State. The State shall establish and maintain a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to goals of national development. All institutions of higher learning shall enjoy academic freedom. The study of the Constitution shall be part of the curricula in all schools.
All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency.
The State shall maintain a system of free public elementary education and, in areas where finances permit, establish and maintain a system of free public education at least up to the secondary level. The State shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth, and create and maintain scholarships for poor and deserving students.
Educational institutions, other than those established by religious orders, mission boards, and charitable organizations, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines, or corporations or associations sixty per centum of the capita;l of which is owned by such citizens. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines.
No education institution shall be established exclusively for aliens, and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment of any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary resident.
At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, and without cost to them and the government, religion shall be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools as may be provided by law. The State shall promote scientific research and invention. The advancement of science and technology shall have priority in the national development.
Filipino culture shall be preserved and developed for national identity. Arts and letters shall be under the patronage of the State. The exclusive right to inventions, writings, and artistic creations shall be secured to investors, authors and artists for a limited period.
Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided for specially gifted children. It shall be the responsibility of the State to achieve and maintain population levels most conducive to the national welfare. The State shall consider the customs, traditions, beliefs, and interests of national cultural communities in the formulation and implementation of State policies.
The State shall establish and maintain an integrated national police force whose organization, administration, and operation, shall be provided by law. The armed forces of the Philippines shall include a citizen army composed of all able-bodied citizens of the Philippines who shall undergo military training as may be provided by law.
It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State. The citizen army shall have a corps of trained officers and men in active duty status as may be necessary to train, service, and keep it in reasonable preparedness at all times. The National Assembly shall establish a central monetary authority which shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit to achieve national economic objectives.
It shall have supervisory authority over the operation of banks and exercise such regulatory authority as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.
Until the National Assembly shall otherwise provide, the Central Bank of the Philippines, operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority. The separation of the church and the State shall be inviolable.
The State may not be sued without its consent. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may be proposed by the National Assembly upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members, or by a constitutional convention.
The National Assembly may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members, call a constitutional convention, or by a majority vote of all its Members, submit the question of calling such a convention to the electorate in an election. Legislative power shall be exercised by an Assembly of Representatives of the Nation. This Assembly shall be organized in the form and manner determined by law. The Members of the Assembly shall represent the who nation and not exclusively the electors who elected them.
No representative shall receive from his electors any imperative mandate whatsoever. The Assembly shall meet every year. The President of the Republic has the right to convoke it, suspend and close its sessions, and dissolve the same, within the periods prescribed by law enacted by the Assembly or by the Permanent Commission. The Assembly shall be open at least three months each year, without including in this period the time spent in its organization.
The President of the Republic shall convoke the Assembly, not later than the 15th day of April. In extraordinary cases, he may convoke the Assembly outside of the period fixed by law, as determined by the Permanent Commission, and prolong its law-making, provided the extended period does not exceed one month and provided further that such extensions do not take place more than twice during the same legislative term.
The National Assembly, jointly with the special Representatives, shall organize committees for the organization of the Assembly and for the election of the new President of the Republic, which shall be formed at least one month before the expiration of the term of office of the Representatives.
In case of death or resignation of the President of the Republic, the Assembly shall meet in session by its own right or by initiative of the President or of the Permanent Commission. In the meantime that the new President has not been chosen, his functions shall be exercised by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court whose office shall be taken over by one of the Justices of the Court, in accordance with law.
Any session of the Assembly held outside the period of ordinary legislature shall be unlawful and void. The case provided in Article 30 and in which the Assembly has constituted itself into a Tribunal of Justice shall be excepted, but in the latter case no other functions shall be exercised except that pertaining to judicial functions.
The sessions of the Assembly shall be public. However, sessions may be held in secret upon petition of a certain number of its members fixed by the Rules, deciding afterwards by an absolute majority of votes of the members present if the discussion on the same subject has to continue in public. The President of the Republic shall communicate with the Assembly by means of messages, which shall be read by a Department Secretary. The Department Secretaries shall have the right to be heard in the Assembly, upon their request, and they may be represented in the discussion of certain bills by Commissioners appointed by decrees of the President of the Republic.
The Assembly may constitute itself into a Tribunal of Justice to hear and determine crimes committed against the security of the State by the President of the Republic and members of the Council of Government, by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and by the Solicitor General of the Nation, by means of a decree promulgating it, or by the Permanent Commission, or by the President of the Republic upon petition of the Solicitor General or Council of Government.
The law shall determine the mode and manner of the accusation, instruction, and disposition of the proceedings. No member of the Assembly shall be prosecuted nor held accountable for the opinions expressed by him, nor by the vote taken by him in the discharge of his office. No member of the Assembly shall be prosecuted criminally without authority of the Assembly or of the Permanent Commission to which an immediate report of the facts shall be made, for its proper action.
The imprisonment, detention, or apprehension of a member of the Assembly shall not be carried out without the prior authority of the same or by the Permanent Commission. The moment the Assembly is notified of the order of imprisonment, it shall incur liability if, within two days following the notification, it does not authorize the imprisonment or give sufficient reason upon which the refusal is based. The National Assembly shall have the following additional powers: 1. To approve Rules for its internal government.
To examine the legality of the elections and the legal qualifications of the elected members. To elect its President, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries. Until the Assembly has been dissolved, the President, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries shall continue to exercise their office for the period of four legislative terms; and 4. To accept the resignations of its members and grant privileges in accordance with the Rules. No bill shall become law without having been voted on by the Assembly.
To approve a bill, the presence in the Assembly of at least one-fourth of the total number of the members whose elections have been duly approved and taken the oath of office shall be necessary. No bill shall be approved by the Assembly until after it has been voted upon as a whole and subsequently article by article.
The Assembly shall have the right of censure, and each of the members the right of interpellation. The initiative in the presentation of bills belongs to the President of the Republic and to the Assembly.
Any member of the Assembly who accepts from the Government any pension, employment, or office with salary, is understood to have renounced his membership. From this shall be excepted the employment as Secretary of the Government of the Republic and other offices provided for by special laws.
The office of Representatives shall be for a term of four years, and shall be compensated by a sum fixed by law, according to the circumstances. Those who absent themselves during the entire period of the legislative sessions shall not be entitled to any compensation; but they may be allowed to recover the right to compensation should they attend subsequently.
The Assembly, before adjournment, shall elect seven of its members to form the Permanent Commission during the period of adjournment, which shall designate at its first session, the President and the Secretary. The Permanent Commission, during the adjournment of the Assembly, shall have the following attributes: 1. Declare if there is sufficient cause to proceed against the President of the Republic, the Representatives, Department secretaries, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the Solicitor-General in the cases provided by this Constitution.
Convoke the Assembly to a special session in the cases where the latter should constitute itself into a Tribunal of Justice.
To act upon pending matters which require proper action. Convoke the Assembly in special sessions when the exigencies of the situation so demand. Supplement the powers of the Assembly in accordance with the Constitution, excepting the act of voting and approving laws.
The Permanent Commission shall meet in session whenever convoked by the presiding officer, in accordance with this Constitution. The Executive Power shall be vested in the President of the Republic, who shall exercise it through his Secretaries. The administration of the particular interests of towns, provinces, and of the State shall correspond, respectively, to the Popular Assembles, the Provincial Assemblies, and to the Administration in power, in accordance with the laws, and observing the most liberal policy of decentralization and administrative autonomy.
The President of the Republic shall be elected by absolute majority of votes by the Assembly and by the special Representatives, convened in chamber assembles. His term of office shall be four years, and may be reelected. The President of the Republic shall have the right to initiate the introduction of bills equally with the members of the Assembly, and promulgate the laws when duly voted and approved by the latter, and shall see to it that the same are duly executed.
The power to execute the laws shall extend to all cases conducive to the preservation of internal public order and to the external security of the State. The President shall promulgate the laws duly approved by him within 20 days following their transmittal to him by the Assembly. If within this period, the President should fail to promulgate them, he shall return them to the Assembly with his reasons for the return, in which case the Assembly may reconsider same, and it shall be presumed by a vote of at least two-thirds of the members of the Assembly present in a quorum.
If repassed in the manner indicated, the Government shall promulgate same within ten days, with a manifestation of its non-conformity.
The obligation is imposed upon the Government if it allows twenty days to elapse without returning the bill to the Assembly. When the promulgation of a law has been declared urgent by express will of an absolute majority of votes of the Assembly, the President of the Republic may require the Assembly to re-approve same which cannot be refused, and if the same bill is repassed, the President shall promulgate it within the legal period, without prejudice to his making of record his non-conformity with the bill.
The promulgation of laws shall be made by publishing them in the official gazette of the Republic, and shall have the force of law thirty days following such publication. The President of the Republic shall have at his disposal the army and the navy, and may declare war and make and ratify treaties with the prior consent of the Assembly.
Treaties of peace shall not take effect until voted upon by the Assembly. The President of the Republic, in addition to his duty to execute the laws, shall: 1. Supervise civil and military employees in accordance with the laws. Appoint the Secretaries of the Government. Direct the diplomatic and commercial relations with foreign powers.
See to it that justice is duly and promptly administered throughout the Philippines. Grant pardon to convicted criminals in accordance with the laws, except any special provision relating to the Secretaries of the Government. With her greatest enemy dead, and on her way to be reunited with the family she'd been stolen from long ago, Yelena should be pleased. But though she has gained her freedom, she can't help feeling isolated in Sitia.
Her Ixian background has changed her in many ways—and her newfound friends and relatives don't think it's for the better Despite the turmoil, she's eager to start her magic training—especially as she's been given one year to harness her power or be put to death.
But her plans take a radical turn when she becomes involved with a plot to reclaim Ixia's throne for a lost prince—and gets entangled in powerful rivalries with her fellow magicians. If that wasn't bad enough, it appears her brother would love to see her dead. Luckily, Yelena has some old friends to help her with all her new enemiesHowever, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustified.
Article XXIII: Petitions and Remonstrance[ edit ] Every Filipino shall have the right to direct petitions or present remonstrances of any import whatsoever, in person or through his representative, to the Council of Government of the Republic.
Until the Batasang Pambansa shall provide otherwise, the Chief Justice shall receive an annual salary of seventy-five thousand pesos, and each Associate Justice, sixty thousand pesos. Military Authority To have the right of supervision and supreme direction of military operations, when they believe it to be necessary for the consummation of high political ends. Merriam C. No motion for the election of such successor shall be debated and voted upon until after the lapse of three days from the submittal of such motion.