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Bhowani Sen had rendered another seminal service. Chattopadhyaya has been oscillating between Marx and Freud throughout the s. His Bangla books written in the early s bear the mark of his final and total conversion and unswerving commitment to Marxism.
The primer, Marxvad , is still considered best suited for the uninitiated to the study of dialectical materialism. Both have been reprinted several times and have been translated into a number of Indian and foreign languages, including Russian, Chinese and Japanese.
To date this remains his best-known work.
Manu Smriti -- Talks in Bengali
As the reviews in leading journals and personal letters from savants all over the world show, the work supplied a long-felt need and opened a new vista in the study of materialism in India. It will be no exaggeration to say that Lokayata has taught and will continue to teach generations of scholars both at home and abroad how to view philosophy in a new light.
Chattopadhyaya eschewed all existing models of enquiry and searched for the roots of materialism in anthropology, took a radical view of both Samkhya and Tantra, and studied the evidence of the Vedas in a way never attempted before. In Indian Atheism , Chattopadhyaya discussed even the astika pro-Vedic schools of philosophy and brought out the atheistic contents inhering in them.
This is a more erudite work than the preceding one, more closely argued and profusely documented. What is Living and What is Dead in Indian Philosophy explores new grounds, covering a wider area.
A work of stupendous scholarship and meticulous research, the book is a sequel to Lokayata at first it was tentatively named Further Studies in Indian Materialism and remains a classic of its kind. Chattopadhyaya was already making forays into new territories as was evident in his Science and Society in Ancient India In a sense it is a continuation of his previous work where his endeavour was to excavate the scientific kernel out of the theological mumbo-jumbo that marred the two basic works of Indian medicine and surgery, the Caraka-samhita and the Susruta-samhita.
This is why, he argued, medicine and surgery in India could not develop into a more exact science after a brilliant beginning.
Chattopadhyaya exhibited his true acumen as a historian of ideas in this work. He was the first to point out how tangled up the basic Sanskrit texts of medicine and surgery are, containing both science and its opposite. He accounted for this odd mixture by pointing out the authoritarian intervention of hide-bound religion.
The opposition to medical science, he pointed out, is most prominent in the so-called sacred books of India, particularly the Yajurveda and later Smriti law book works like the Manu-samhita.
Later he wrote a booklet in Bangla Prachin Bharate Chikitsavijnan, providing a synoptic view of all this. His focus of interest now shifted to the history and philosophy of science in ancient India. After retirement from his teaching post in City College, Kolkata, in where for more than two decades he had taught rudiments of logic and philosophy to the undergraduates , he started afresh as a student, teaching himself different branches of ancient science.
With the avid interest of an explorer, he now studied, besides medicine and surgery, astronomy and geometry. His magnum opus, History of Science and Technology in Ancient India in three volumes , , and , the third volume was published posthumously differs from all other works of its kind.
Instead of taking off from the more convenient area of Vedic India, he concentrated on the Indus Valley civilization.
This yielded excellent results, provide as it did the very important missing link in the field of astronomy vainly sought so far by Tilak and Jacobi. Girls are supposed to be in the custody of their father when they are children, women must be under the custody of their husband when married and under the custody of her son as widows.
In no circumstances is she allowed to assert herself independently. Men may be lacking virtue, be sexual perverts, immoral and devoid of any good qualities, and yet women must constantly worship and serve their husbands. Women have no divine right to perform any religious ritual, nor make vows or observe a fast. Her only duty is to obey and please her husband and she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven. At her pleasure [after the death of her husband], let her emaciate her body by living only on pure flowers, roots of vegetables and fruits.
She must not even mention the name of any other men after her husband has died.
Manu Smriti -- Talks in Bengali
Any women violating duty and code of conduct towards her husband, is disgraced and becomes a patient of leprosy. After death, she enters womb of Jackal. In case women enjoy sex with a man from a higher caste, the act is not punishable. But on the contrary, if women enjoy sex with lower caste men, she is to be punished and kept in isolation.
In case a man from a lower caste enjoys sex with a woman from a higher caste, the person in question is to be awarded the death sentence.
In case a woman tears the membrane [hymen] of her Vagina, she shall instantly have her head shaved or two fingers cut off and made to ride on Donkey. The role of then extant Manusmriti as a historic foundation of law texts for the people of Southeast Asia has been very important, states Hooker. Of the numerous jurisprudence-related commentaries and Smriti texts, after Manu Smriti and other than the older Dharma Sutras, Yajnavalkya Smriti has attracted the attention of many scholars, followed by Narada Smriti and Parashara Smriti the oldest Dharma-smriti.
This text, of unclear date of composition, but likely to be a few centuries after Manusmriti, is more "concise, methodical, distilled and liberal".
On matters such as women's rights of inheritance and right to hold property, status of Sudras, and criminal penalty, Yajnavalkya is more liberal than Manu. He deals exhaustively on subjects like creation of valid documents, law of mortgages, hypothecation, partnership and joint ventures.
Ambedkar left burnt it in , while Gandhi right found it a mix of lofty as well as contradictory teachings.
Gandhi suggested a critical reading, and rejection of parts that were contrary to ahimsa. Ambedkar , who held Manusmriti as responsible for caste system in India. In protest, Ambedkar burnt Manusmrti in a bonfire on December 25, Babasaheb Ambedkar condemned Manusmriti, Mahatma Gandhi opposed the book burning.
The latter stated that while caste discrimination was harmful to spiritual and national growth, it had nothing to do with Hinduism and its texts such as Manusmriti. Gandhi argued that the text recognizes different callings and professions, defines not one's rights but one's duties, that all work from that of a teacher to a janitor are equally necessary, and of equal status. It was first translated into English by Sir William Jones.
His version was published in In fact, states Romila Thapar, these were not codes of law but social and ritual texts. He commented on it both favorably and unfavorably: He deemed it "an incomparably spiritual and superior work" to the Christian Bible, observed that "the sun shines on the whole book" and attributed its ethical perspective to "the noble classes, the philosophers and warriors, [who] stand above the mass.
He, states Walter Kaufmann , "denounces the way in which the 'Law of Manu' dealt with the outcastes, saying that there is nothing that outrages our feelings more Ambedkar asserted that Manu Smriti was written by a sage named Brigu during the times of Pushyamitra of Sangha in connection with social pressures caused by the rise of Buddhism.Ambedkar , who held Manusmriti as responsible for caste system in India.
To many, the only ideas and knowledge.
Pracchadata few days ago, I sent an e-mail. However, the text version in modern use, according to Olivelle, is likely the work of a single author or a chairman with research assistants. Such events Accident the number of million-countless millions. A Defence Science and Religion: For example, if the ice melted in the north and south poles of the savings, according to scientists, the mountains, the entire world would be submerged under water.
Biplob Rahman on March 3, at
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