In this chapter we will explore the creation of graphical user interfaces. (GUIs). A major part of creating a graphical user interface in Java is figuring out. Download free eBooks at bestthing.info 2. David Etheridge. Java: Graphical User Interfaces. – An Introduction to Java Programming. 3 Java GUI Design. 4 Recurring User Interface Designs. Part II Software Design. 5 Iterative GUI Development with Java.
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Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), which combine graphical and textual interaction using Processing and the user interface components common to Java GUIs. Java: Graphical User Interfaces - An Introduction to Java Programming Etheridge; Publisher: BookBoon ; Paperback: N/A; eBook Online, PDF, pages. Chapter 6. Graphical User Interfaces in JAVA. Contents. Introduction: The Modern User Interface The Basic GUI Application.
In science fiction , HMI is sometimes used to refer to what is better described as direct neural interface. However, this latter usage is seeing increasing application in the real-life use of medical prostheses —the artificial extension that replaces a missing body part e.
A means of tracking parts of the body is required, and sensors noting the position of the head, direction of gaze and so on have been used experimentally. This is particularly relevant to immersive interfaces.
Java: Graphical User Interfaces
User interfaces were rudimentary. Users had to accommodate computers rather than the other way around; user interfaces were considered overhead, and software was designed to keep the processor at maximum utilization with as little overhead as possible.
The input side of the user interfaces for batch machines was mainly punched cards or equivalent media like paper tape. The output side added line printers to these media. With the limited exception of the system operator's console , human beings did not interact with batch machines in real time at all.
An Introduction Graphical User Interfaces with Java Swing
Submitting a job to a batch machine involved, first, preparing a deck of punched cards describing a program and a dataset. Punching the program cards wasn't done on the computer itself, but on keypunches , specialized typewriter-like machines that were notoriously bulky, unforgiving, and prone to mechanical failure.
The software interface was similarly unforgiving, with very strict syntaxes meant to be parsed by the smallest possible compilers and interpreters.
Holes are punched in the card according to a prearranged code transferring the facts from the census questionnaire into statistics Once the cards were punched, one would drop them in a job queue and wait.
Eventually, operators would feed the deck to the computer, perhaps mounting magnetic tapes to supply another dataset or helper software.
The job would generate a printout, containing final results or all too often an abort notice with an attached error log. Successful runs might also write a result on magnetic tape or generate some data cards to be used in a later computation.
The turnaround time for a single job often spanned entire days. The sole purpose of a Panel is to organize the components on to a window.
Java Swing Tutorial: Examples to create GUI
Frame: It is a fully functioning window with its title and icons. Dialog: It can be thought of like a pop-up window that pops out when a message has to be displayed. It is not a fully functioning window like the Frame. Step 3 Now let's Add a Button to our frame. Copy following code into an editor import javax. Copy the following code into an editor. The second approach has been chosen because the code integration process is simpler. Unlike the first approach it implies the programmer must learn how to use the supplied methods, but it avoids having to learn the native GUI building API which would take certainly longer.
Block diagram showing the development process.
XML Ray, , eXtensible Markup Language, is a very complete technology which allows data processing operations, from document formatting to data filtering. Despite its name it is not in itself a markup language but instead a set of rules by which markup languages can be defined usually named a meta-language. Java is the other technology used Arnold, Being Java a platform independent programming language, it allows a Java application to run in any platform that supports the JVM Java Virtual Machine , without changes to its code.
The Java technology includes an extensive set of libraries, known as Java Foundation Classes JFC, , which make it, in comparison with other languages, a very productive language. A part of the JFC is the Swing toolkit. Swing Elliott, is a set of classes and methods available for Java programmers to build graphical user interfaces. Swing provides most of the main concepts used in graphical interfaces, such as drag and drop. The components Swing provides are also platform independent.
Such integration is accomplished through the use of an XML parser Harold, An XML parser is a program that reads an XML file and makes the data in that file available for the programmer to use in the application. The way the data are provided may vary since different APIs exist to handle the parsing procedure. SAX lets the programmer handle the data as it is being read, and thus the programmer has to provide all the data structures required to store the data.
DOM, a W3C standard, on the other hand, processes the entire XML file and makes all of the data available in its own tree-like data structure.
The programmer must then work with that structure. Since it is simpler to use a tree-like structure than to build a customized one, DOM has been chosen as the parser API.
The language uses tags to define all of the interface components and the actions associated to those components. Table 1 illustrates some of the tags and the components defined by each one.
Further details and the complete definition of the markup language can be found in Moreira, Table 1. Other special tags have also been defined. Together with the component tags, attributes for the components have also been defined. Some of the defined attributes can be seen in Table 2. Table 2.
Regarding the interface: For this language to be more useful, it supports attributes which control the actions performed by the components see Table 3. Some of those attributes can be used to define actions which do not require extra code from the programmer.
Consider, for example, the following definition of a button: Whenever the button is pressed it will trigger an action named exit that causes the application to finish. The code below shows one such example: Such assignment of methods to actions is accomplished using the reflection feature from the Java programming language Arnold More complex pre-defined actions which require additional code are also present.
Consider the definition below: This button, when pressed, opens a file choosing box file browser. The file or option chosen in the file browser is then passed to the method button3Click, present in the class MyButtons. Table 3. Those types of actions are: Only type c actions require addition of Java code. All the others represent actions automatically handled by the package. In the main application code, an instance of the class BuildGUI must be declared and initialized with the filename of the XML file where the interface is defined, e.
Then, the generation of the interface is started by invoking the gui. After the interface is built, a way to control and to interact with the components is obviously required e. The package also supplies methods to achieve the interaction with the GUI components Moreira, Eventually, operators would feed the deck to the computer, perhaps mounting magnetic tapes to supply another dataset or helper software.
Frame to inherit the main window as follows: import java.
A nested class is a member of the outer class, just like any member variables and methods defined inside a class. Just as importantly, the existence of an accessible screen — a two-dimensional display of text that could be rapidly and reversibly modified — made it economical for software designers to deploy interfaces that could be described as visual rather than textual.
TextField A java.
Type NumberAddition in the Project Name field and specify a path, for example, in your home directory, as the project location. A graphical user interface following the desktop metaphor The user interface or human—machine interface is the part of the machine that handles the human—machine interaction. During program execution, the binding of GUI components to actions is performed using the Java reflection feature, which permits to instantiate a class and to invoke a method based on dynamically defined names.
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