A Teoria da Autodeterminação (TAD), apresentada por Edward L. Deci e Richard M. Ryan em , foi criada focalizando as tendências evolutivas, as necessidades psicológicas inatas e as condições contextuais favoráveis à motivação, ao funcionamento social e ao bem-estar. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. Authors; (view affiliations). Edward L. Edward L. Deci, Richard M. Ryan. Pages PDF . Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. Edward L. Deci and. Richard M. Ryan. University of Rochester. Rochester, New York. PLENUM.

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In Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, ) we distinguish between different animal behavior, where it was discovered that many organisms engage in In humans, intrinsic motivation is not the only form of motivation, or even. Get this from a library! Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. [Edward L Deci; Richard M Ryan]. intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The human behavior but also to the design of social environ- Research guided by self-determination the -.

As such, they bear similarity to what some other particular contextual factor such as a monetary reward, an oppor- researchers refer or as needs and motives.

We do not, however, tunity for choice, or a performance evaluation is likely to support consider them to be needs, for needs are essential nutriments rather versus thwart satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, people than learned desires.

Instead, we understand aspirations to be are able to predict the effects of that factor on such outcomes as acquired as a function of the degree to which the basic needs for motivation, behavior, affect, and well-being.

In addition the pos- competence, relatedness, and autonomy have been satisfied versus tulation of basic needs helps explain why only some efficacious thwarted over time. When needs have been thwarted, for example, behaviors actually enhance well-being, whereas others do not.

As such, extrinsic aspirations are one type of need substitute—they provide little or no direct need Many theories of motivation have as their primary individual satisfaction but people pursue these goals because they provide difference the strength of one or more psychological needs—for some substitute or compensation for the lack of true need satis- example, the need for achievement, for intimacy, or for control.

Unfortunately, as extrinsic goals are being pursued they The idea is that needs are learned, and some people develop tend to crowd out pursuit of basic need satisfaction, and they fail stronger needs than others. Because SDT maintains that the needs to foster integration or wellness, even when attained.

Specifically, within SDT there are two general individ- sions of the research and theorizing within the SDT tradition. We ual difference concepts, causality orientations and life goals. Dans notre introduction, nous abordons aussi feelings, and the development of a more autonomous orientation.

Whereas other theories Brown, K. The benefits of being present: have posited that self-regulation and choice are draining of Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Per- energy, SDT researchers have hypothesized and demonstrated sonality and Social Psychology, 84, — Intrinsic motivation and self- determination in human behavior.

New York: Plenum. Autonomous regulation is not depleting Deci, E. Canadian Psychology, whereas controlled motives drain energy, actions that lead to 49, 14 — Canadian Psychology, 49, — Applications Guay, F.

Optimal learning in optimal contexts: The role of self-deetermination in education. Canadian Psy- Finally, as we said earlier, there has been a surge of activity in chology, 49, — In this special issue we Joussemet, M. A self-determination are pleased to have papers summarizing some of the research theory perspective on parenting.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 80 — Like classic studies on the undermining effect e. During an initial scanning session, participants in both groups evidenced greater activity in the midbrain and caudate upon the receipt of success feedback relative to failure feedback. Subsequent to the experimental manipulation, and consistent with previous behavioral studies on the undermining effect, participants in the reward group were less likely to voluntarily engage with the task during a free-choice time period relative to those in the control group.

Importantly, this behavioral undermining of intrinsic motivation was paralleled by reduced activity in the caudate and midbrain during a second scanning session when monetary rewards were no longer administered to the reward group.

In contrast the unrewarded group maintained its previous levels of activation.

This difference in activity between the control and experimental groups is consistent with the idea that the dopaminergic value system is responsive to cues that signal task-related progress during intrinsically motivated activities. In a more recent fMRI study, Murayama et al. Results indicated that activity within the VMPFC bilateral gyrus rectus and medial orbitofrontal gyrus was greater upon the receipt of success feedback than failure feedback.

However, this effect was modulated by the type of the trial conditions. On the one hand, the VMPFC exhibited similarly high levels of activity across success and failure feedback after free-choice autonomy trials. On the other hand, this region exhibited marked reductions in activity after forced-choice trials.

Importantly, this sustained activity within the VMPFC in response to failure feedback was associated with enhanced performance within the free-choice condition. Present evidence suggests that value coding dopamine neurons in the midbrain project to the VMPFC and that this structure is involved in learning from negative reward prediction errors and updating outcome expectations during learning Bromberg-Martin et al.

These results are thus consistent with the idea that intrinsic motivation, and the perceived autonomy that phenomenally supports it, is associated with activity within the dopaminergic value system. Conceptually related to these fMRI studies is research examining intrinsic motivation using electroencephalography EEG.

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Both of these waveforms are negative-going deflections in EEG recordings that arise during speeded-response tasks. Whereas the ERN appears within ms following the commission of errors, the FRN appears between ms and ms following the receipt of negative feedback. Holroyd and Coles proposed that both the ERN and FRN arise as a consequence of phasic reductions in midbrain dopaminergic signaling to ACC, the purported neural generator of these waveforms.

These phasic reductions in dopamine transmission to the ACC, and the consequent ERN and FRN, are believed to constitute a learning signal that tunes the ACC to optimize behavioral performance, an account that parallels the reward-prediction signaling of value-coding dopamine neurons Schultz, ; Bromberg-Martin et al.

In a sample of school children, Fisher et al. In a study that paralleled the design of Murayama et al. In another study, this time paralleling the design of Meng and Ma and Murayama et al.

To this point, Jin et al. In light of these small sample sizes and diversity of findings, it is clear that more decisive larger-sample studies are required. Nevertheless, the available evidence from these EEG studies is generally consistent with the idea that intrinsic motivation is associated with dopaminergic signaling. Other evidence of a link between intrinsic motivation and the dopaminergic system comes from studies examining the neural correlates of curiosity.

Kang et al. Participants reflected upon a series of trivia questions e. During the presentation of the trivia questions, items that elicited greater curiosity were associated with activations in the left caudate and parahippocampal gyri PHG. Although Bromberg-Martin et al. A follow-up study by Gruber et al. This study used trivia questions similar to Kang et al.

Incidental information consisted of face stimuli that were presented to participants when they anticipated trivia answers. Furthermore, replicating the behavioral results of Kang et al.

Extending these previous behavioral findings, Gruber et al. Proposition II: Intrinsic Motivation Entails Dynamic Switching between Brain Networks for Salience Detection, Attentional Control and Self-Referential Cognition A complementary approach to theorizing about the neural systems that support intrinsic motivation is to map its phenomenology with the activity of large-scale neural networks Ryan and Di Domenico, Research on structural and functional brain organization has revealed multiple large-scale brain networks that support various cognitive functions Bressler and Menon, Among these is the so-called salience network, which is believed to support the detection of subjectively important events and the mobilization of attentional and working memory resources in the service of goal-directed behavior Menon and Uddin, ; Menon, These subcortical nodes are believed to send signals about the motivational significance of stimuli to the AI; the AI in turn is believed to integrate this information with incoming sensory inputs from both the external environment and the viscera for the bottom-up detection of contextually important events.

Through its reciprocal connections with the dACC, a key structure for executive control, the AI is believed to selectively amplify neural signals of important events for the effective deployment of cognitive resources. Little is presently known about the specific role of dopamine in the functioning of the salience network. However, AI does receive inputs from the amygdala, the likely source of the motivational salience signals sent to dopamine neurons in the midbrain, from the ventral striatum, which receives dopaminergic projections from the midbrain, and from the SN and the VTA, the midbrain regions from which dopamine neurons originate Bromberg-Martin et al.

Additionally, the AI has reciprocal connections with the dACC, which likely receives direct input from both value- and salience-coding dopamine neurons Bromberg-Martin et al. These connections imply that the AI may play a role in contextualizing the signals of motivational significance transmitted by both value- and salience-coding dopamine neurons.

Most relevant in this regard is the suggestion that the AI functions as a dynamic hub for modulating the activity of two other large-scale brain networks Menon and Uddin, ; Menon, These regions show high levels of activity during passive resting states Gusnard and Raichle, , tasks involving internally-focused, self-referential cognition Northoff et al.

The regions of this network, which are important substrates of working memory and executive functions, typically show elevated activity during cognitively demanding, externally-focused tasks.

Importantly, activity across the default mode and central executive networks often fluctuates in an antagonistic manner, such that activity in one is often accompanied by suppressed activity in the other. The antagonistic dynamic between the default mode and central executive networks, along with the role of the salience-mediating switching instigated by the AI, may inform three characteristics of intrinsic motivation.

First, in its most experientially abundant state, intrinsic motivation entails cognitive absorption and non-self-conscious enjoyment of an activity Csikszentmihalyi, ; Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, This phenomenology suggests diminished activity within regions of the default mode network, which are commonly activated during self-focused mental activity e.

Second, intrinsic motivation is reliably associated with enhanced performance, cognitive flexibility, and deeper conceptual learning e. This relation between intrinsic motivation and enhanced task performance is consistent with, and may be partly explained by, greater mobilization of the central executive network during intrinsically motivating tasks Ryan and Di Domenico, The salience network, and the AI most specifically, with its receipt of sensory and visceral input and its interoceptive functions Craig, ; Menon and Uddin, ; Menon, , would seem well-suited to support this aspect of autonomy, especially during intrinsic motivation when people orient themselves to stimuli that spontaneously grip their attention and interest.

Neuroimaging studies have reported patterns of neural activity consistent with the idea that intrinsic motivation recruits the salience and central executive networks, while suppressing the default mode network. In the aforementioned study by Murayama et al.

What Is Self-Determination Theory?

The study by Murayama et al. The curiosity studies by Kang et al. More recently, Marsden et al. Specifically, their study found participants who spent more free-choice time solving remote-associate word problems i. Jepma et al. Participants viewed blurry images of otherwise easily recognizable objects that induced feelings of curiosity, and were subsequently shown clear images of the objects to satisfy their curiosity. Results indicated that induction of curiosity was associated with significant activations within the AI and ACC, the core regions of the salience network, and significant deactivations within regions associated with the default mode network.

Additionally, this study found that the resolution of perceptual curiosity was associated with activity within the left caudate, putamen, and NAcc, regions that comprise the core of the dopaminergic system. A set of studies Lee et al. Most prominently, these studies found preferential activity within insular regions when participants imagined the enactment of intrinsically motivating activities.

Building on this initial work, Lee more recently described the results of an fMRI study that examined functional connectivity between striatal regions and the AI when participants attempted trivia questions and anagrams.

Results indicated that when participants worked on intrinsically motivating problems curiosity inducing-questions and competence-enabling anagrams they evidenced greater activity and functional connectivity between these regions. Klasen et al.

The authors developed an objective coding system for examining different components of the flow experience based on player-generated video game contents.

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Consistent with the idea that intrinsic motivation is associated with dopaminergic signaling, optimal challenge was associated greater activity within the caudate, putamen, and NAcc. Consistent with the idea that intrinsic motivation is associated with suppressed activity in default mode regions, concentrated focus and goal clarity were associated with reduced activity within the orbitofrontal cortex and ACC.

Additionally, task-related failure was associated with increased activity within the cuneus, a structure included within the default mode network. In another fMRI study, Ulrich et al. Results indicated that flow states were associated with increased activity in the left putamen and left IFG, again implicating core regions of both the dopaminergic system and the central executive network. Results also indicated that flow was associated with deactivations within the MPFC, suggesting suppressed default mode network activity.

In another study, Yoshida et al. Again, consistent with the idea that intrinsically motivated states recruit central executive regions, results indicated increasing bilateral activity within lateral PFC regions during flow. Despite these mixed findings, the results of existing studies altogether suggest that future research would benefit by explicitly testing the proposition that intrinsic motivation is associated with patterns of activity across the salience, central executive, and default mode networks.

Discussion Recent years have witnessed an emerging interest in the neurobiological systems that support intrinsic motivational processes. Although this area of inquiry is young, conceptual and empirical evidence points to the role of dopaminergic systems in supporting intrinsically motivated behaviors.

Building on Bromberg-Martin et al. Because these dopamine systems entail distinct neural structures, future neuroimaging studies have a strong conceptual basis for specifying distinct a priori regions of interest.

Beyond that, evidence suggests that intrinsic motivation involves alterations between the neural networks of salience detection, attentional control, and self-referential cognition Menon and Uddin, ; Menon, Better understanding of these large-scale neural dynamics may provide greater resolution of the processes that support high quality learning and performance. Despite the clear conceptual relationship between intrinsic motivation and dopaminergic transmission, only two existing studies provide direct evidence of an association between these two processes de Manzano et al.

The bulk of existing research provides indirect support to the hypothesis that dopamine is a substrate of intrinsic motivation in that the core regions innervated by dopamine neurons are activated during intrinsic motivation.

Pharmacological manipulations of dopamine thus represent an important new research direction. Deci, E. Eds Capabilities and Happiness. Oxford University Press.

Fehr, E.

Institute for Empirical Research in Economics. Working Paper Series. Zurich University. Frey, B. Does Pay Motivate Volunteers? Frohlich, N.

Unpublished Manuscript. Meeting of the preferences Network Research Group. Geen, R. Human motivation: A psychological approach. Wadsworth Publishing. Harvey, S. Why did you do that?Through our relationships and interactions with others, we can either foster or thwart well-being and personal growth. These observations indicate that intrinsically motivated exploratory and mastery behaviors are primarily energized by interest and appetitive mastery tendencies, not anxiety reduction.

Other evidence of a link between intrinsic motivation and the dopaminergic system comes from studies examining the neural correlates of curiosity. History of Western Philosophy. Pharmacological manipulations of dopamine thus represent an important new research direction.

Preview this item Preview this item. Incidentally, we note that Albrecht et al. Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory.

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